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The U.S. GovernmentThe Federal Government of the United States was created by the Constitution which went into action in 1789. The government is organized into three separate branches. Those three branches are called the Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches.The Legislative Branch of the government holds the power to make laws and declare war. In the United States, Congress is the legislative branch. Congress is made up of two groups called houses. One of the houses is the Senate, which is made up of 100 senators, 2 from each state. All the voters from a state elect both the senators for that state. Senators serve 6 year long terms. A Senator represents the people of his or her state and writes and votes on new laws. The leader of the Senate is called the President of the Senate. The Vice President of The United States serves as the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate only votes to break ties. Whenever the President of the Senate of the Senate is absent or una, a senator called the President Pro Tempore leads the Senate.The Majority Party in the Senate chooses the President Pro Tempore.The other house is called the House of Representatives. There are 435 representatives in the House of Representatives. The number of representatives from each state is dependent on the state’s population. That would mean that states with a smaller population would have less representatives than a state with a larger population. States like California that have more than 1 representative are divided into districts. People are only allowed to vote for the representative for the district that they live in. A representative’s term only lasts two years. The House has certain powers which include the rights to originate revenue bills and begin impeachment proceedings. The House also chooses the president in the rare event that no candidate collects a majority of votes from the Electoral College. The leader of the House of Representatives is called the Speaker of the House. Whichever political party that has the most members in the House is called the majority party and they choose the Speaker for the House. The House Of Representatives shares equal responsibility for lawmaking with the Senate.The Judicial Branch of government is made up of a multilevel court system. Roman RepublicIn 509 B.C., the Romans rebelled against the Etruscan King, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and began to create a republic. A republic is a type of government where the people elect officials who govern according to law. At first only the patricians could participate in government. The Patricians were a group of mostly wealthy landowners. They controlled the Senate and made laws. In 409 B.C., Plebeians finally gained the right to elect representatives called tribunes and form an assembly. The assembly made laws and elected to consuls. Consuls were two executive officials who would lead the government and control the army for a year at a time. A consul was able to veto a decision made by the other consul. The Senate was made up of 300 patrician members. Senate members weren’t elected, they were selected by the Consuls and served for life. Their duty was to advise the Consuls and make laws. The Judicial Branch was made up of 8 judges who served for 1 year terms. Their duty was to govern provinces. Athenian DemocracyParticipation in government was limited to only adult male citizens. No woman, slave, child or foreign resident could participate. There was no Prime Minister or President or Athens. The Athenian Democracy had branches of government that were similar to the Judicial, Executive and Legislative branches.. The Legislative Branch of government was made up of a council and assembly. The council was made up of 500 members who were chosen to represent their district for a 1 year term. Their duty was to set and prepare the agenda of the Assembly. Literally, any adult male citizen could participate in the Assembly but, only a fraction of the 30,000 or so eligible men could participate. After discussing the topic, a vote would take place.

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