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employment on college students has become a common feature to their study
commitments which may influence monetary and academic outcomes. In an article ‘The Working Status of Students and Time to
Degree at German Universities’ the number of students in Europe turning to
work while attending university have reportedly increased. For example, the
rate of student employment in Germany has risen from 51 percent in 1991 to 62
percent in 2012 (Sprietsma, 2015). Several reasons such as students’ financial
constraints can be understood to have caused this development as many students
are working part-time to help finance college costs. Consequently, employment
can reduce the time students spend on studying and may hinder academic
performance. According to Carnevale (2015), “Today, almost every college
student works, but you cannot work your way through college anymore”.
Therefore, more research is needed to understand the complex relationship of
employment with students’ education and the strategies students use to cope
with the academic demands.

For this research, the objective was to investigate the
effect of term-time employment on students’ finance and academic performance at
the International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef (IUBH). It is also
significant to study how students manage their academic responsibility and how
the university help eases students’ learning. And with the results of this
research students can gain information on what to expect as a working student
and on the ways to balance work with studies more effectively.
There is an extensive international research addressing the
subject of student employment and its effect on students’ achievement but have
concluded insufficient evidence for a direct relationship (Nonis & Hudson,
2006; Watanabe, 2005; De Zoysa & Rudkin, 2007). Watanabe (2005) conducted a
study at the University of Central Florida and examined factors affecting
students’ GPA scores. The study found no significant difference in students’
GPA scores with students having flexible working hours to students with no
flexible work schedule. However, Watanabe (2005) notes that the GPAs that were
taken are self-reported by students which is inevitable for human error,
resulting in a major drawback to the study.Conversely,
in a study which set out to determine the effects of time allocation on
students’ academic achievement, Grave (2011) found that female and high-ability
students with average grades are positively correlated with the time spent on
courses. Moreover, the study of German students enrolled at universities of
applied sciences between 1986 and 2006 reveal that for almost all students,
grades are positively correlated with time students devote for self-study and
other related activities. In contrast, a negative correlation is concluded on
time spend on attending tutorials or student group works with grades of the
students with below average of ability. A
more recent study which analyzes the completion time of students to graduate
with regards to their working status in Germany is done by Theune (2015). Using
a Cox proportional hazards model, the results indicate there is an increasing
effect on time to graduate for students who take part-time work. Moreover,
Theune (2015) identifies the financial aid provided by BAfo¨G (Federal
Education and Training Assistance Act) to students and suggests that improving
these financial aids could lead to shorter duration of study as work
intensities lower. Consistent
with this theme, Sprietsma (2015) used longitudinal survey data in the years
2007 to 2010 on first-semester students in Germany which contain information on
educational and employment status of the participants. The report showed no
significant effect of students’ employment on academic performance even for
students who work more than 10 hours per week. However, the results indicate
that working students obtain better grades with jobs that are relevant to their
field of study.Only
a few papers have explored the importance of financial assistance contributed
by term-time job such as help students finance their education (Callender,
2008; Carney et al., 2005; Neill, 2015). For example, a previous study of
students at University of London (Callender, 2008) revealed that 28% of
students turn to part-time work to help pay out student loans and finance a
particular lifestyle. Moreover, many students of the same study claimed that
they are facing serious financial problems due to lack of support from their
families with 77% of students from the lower social class and 38% from the
higher social class. As noted by Callender (2008) students who work, receives
less money than non-working students from their parents and concludes that
parental contributions play a strong role in decision making of a student on
whether they should work or how their earnings are spent. A
similar conclusion is drawn by Manthei and Gilmore (2005) who surveyed
eighty-three undergraduates at University of Canterbury about students’
academic workload, earnings, and expenditure. They report that 90% of students
spend their earnings on rent, followed by 72% on transportation and then
university costs with 26%. Additionally, if students had enough money to
finance all their expenses 57 percent revealed they would not work,
correspondingly, they said they would have more time spent on studying and improving
their grades. On the other hand, they point out that because of experience and
career development, students would still choose to work, even if they did not
have to.

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 In Germany, however, students are eligible for
BAföG (Bundesausbil
dungsförderungsgesetz) which provides financial aid, dependent on several
combined criteria. A broader perspective has been adopted by Sprietsma (2015)
who examines students who receive financial support (BAföG) and its relation to
student employment. The analysis of the report revealed that repetition rates
and secondary school grades are similar for students who received financial
support and to those that did not. Furthermore, students that receive BAföG
have a higher total income of 35 Euro per month and are unlikely to work more
than 10 hours per week.

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