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Health and Safety Assignment 3

 

In this report, I will be writing about the
principle of reporting and recording accidents and incidents, along with
describing the procedures used to record and report accidents, dangerous
occurrences or near misses. I will also be writing about the cost of an
accident in the workplace at the given time of the accident.

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Principles of reporting and recording accidents and
incidents (P7)

 

In this part of the report, I will be writing about the why
it is important to report accidents, illnesses, emergencies, and incidents such
as a near miss. This part will also include what types of accidents and
incidents need to be reported to the Health and Safety Executive, and also by
whom.

 Incidents that happen  help people in the company to be more aware- If
there are frequent incident that occur, more people that work in the company
will be more observant to any accidents or incidents that could become a
possible illness or emergency. This would then ensure that more people will see
the problems and report them before it is too late, and someone could get hurt
in the future.  More people reporting
also shows that more people are also observant of the work place, and therefore
there won’t be a many major accidents that would happen as all or most of the
small incidents would have been sorted out.

Taking care of the minor incidents and accidents before
they become anything major- In most
cases, the incidents or accidents that happen are minor, and mainly result in
no injuries or little injuries that will not require taking days off to
recover. This is good as it means that nothing major had happened that would
require a lot of money to solve, as well as ensuring that the incident or
accident will be dealt with before the risks become more dangerous. Reporting the
smaller problems can also prevent bigger problems from arising in the
workplace, as the bigger problems normally occur from little things, such as
electric wires left on the floor, or a water spillage. If these two were not
reported, therefore meaning that they will still be a risk, they would still be
a problem. These two different risks could become a major accident if the
electric and the water met; it could result in some dangerous injuries or even
death to the people that may have been there at the time of the electric wires
connecting with the water.

Reporting a problem costs less than the cost of fixing what
has happened- If an accident happened,
because no-one reported the problem, there are a lot of complications that
would need to be thought of, and one of them is the cost of everything and
everyone that was involved. The costs could include sick pay for injured
employers, damages to any materials, cost of legal fines, production delays,
and loss of contracts. This could have all been prevented if a report was put
in place from an incident that if not sorted out, becomes something that can
create an accident, which could lead to injuries.

If more incidents are reported, there is more data to
determine what needs to be fixed- This
part means that if there are many incidents and accidents that have been
reported, it would be easier to determine what the main problems are, and to
therefore fix these problems quicker. More reports also show more problems that
need to be fixed in the workplace, even small problems that could become worse
over time. More incidents being reported are also better than about one or two
incidents being reported as they show all the hazards that could be harmful to
the workers.

People can learn from the incidents that have occurred- If there are many reports that have been made, it shows
that the people in the workplace are learning to know when to report any of the
problems, and it also shows that they learn to make sure that, that mistake
won’t happen again that caused the incident, accident, illness or emergency.
The people that work for that company will also know what to do after any
injuries have been produced as they have already been through all of the
procedures.

What accidents need to be reported to the HSE and by whom- There are many accidents which happen in the workplace, but
not all of them are needed to be reported to the Health and Safety Executive. The
ones that are needed to be reported are; the death of a person, certain
injuries to workers (which will be shown later on), over seven days in which a
worker is incapacitated, and non-fatal accidents to non-workers.

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 2013 show what accidents need to be reported to the
HSE, as they are deemed as most important to ensure that it doesn’t happen
again, and are needed to be dealt with in the quickest way possible. The death
of a person needs to be reported to the Health and Safety Executive as this
could be a consequence of not having the right PPE, the machines and equipment
are too dangerous to use, or the person may be new and needed supervision.

A death is the worst thing that could happen in an accident
as there is no way to help them with medical service. Regulation 6 from RIDDOR
states that ‘where any person dies as a result
of a work-related accident, the responsible person must follow the reporting
procedure’ and ‘where an employee has suffered an injury reportable under
regulation 4 which is a cause of his death within one year of the date of the
accident, the employer must notify the relevant enforcing authority of the
death in an approved manner’. These two parts of regulation 6 show that if
someone dies due to an accident, it is the employer that is responsible to
report the fatality, whether it would be a death right at the time of the
accident, or if the employee dies from a work related injury. (Legislation.gov.uk)

The certain injuries to workers, that are
non-fatal, are ‘a bone fracture’ which has been diagnosed, the ‘amputation of
an arm, hand, finger, thumb, leg, foot, or toe’, and injury which is ‘likely to
make the person go blind or reduction of sight’, an injury to the head or torso
‘which could cause damage to the brain or internal organs’, a burn that covers
more than ‘10% of the whole body’s surface area’, and ‘loss of consciousness
caused by a head injury’. These are all stated in regulation 4 from RIDDOR, and
are all vital in reporting to the HSE as all of these injuries could lead to
the person not being able to work, or having to change occupations in what job
they want as they won’t be able to use the machines with a complete certainty
that they are safe. (Legislation.gov.uk)

The  over seven days incapacitation of a worker is
also shown in regulation , which means that it is also very important to report
anything like this to the Health and Safety Executive. This must be reported by
a higher authority than they employee that was involved. The over three day
incapacitation is different to the seven days, as it doesn’t have to be
reported, but does have to be recorded in order to have proof of what happened.
This would usually be reported in an accident book, which must be kept by the
employer of that company.

The non-fatal injuries to non-workers is also very
important to report, as this means that the public is also involved in the
accident, and therefore shows that the people that work in the workplace didn’t
give the non-workers the right PPE to protect themselves, or the right
instructions to follow. In regulation 5 from RIDDOR, it shows that ‘Where any person not at work, as a result of a
work-related accident, suffers an injury, the responsible person must follow
the reporting procedure’, which says that the person who is responsible for all
the people in the workplace, which is usually the employer or manager, must
report this immediately. Even though they are non-fatal, they still need to be
reported as an injury to a non-worker shows that the company it’s fit to have
people visit or even work there, as they could have not been following the
regulations correctly, and could be closed down if not reported and dealt
with.  (Legislation.gov.uk)

 

Procedures used to record and report accidents, dangerous
occurrences, or near misses (P8)

 

For this part of the report, I will be
writing about what to do after an accident or incidents occurs, along with the
procedures of reporting to the Health and Safety Executive. When an accident
has happened, there are many procedures that should be followed, which are;
calling a first aider/ ambulance to be taken to the hospital, reporting to
either the Manager, Employer, or the Health and Safety Officer, recording the
accident in the accident book, reporting with forms, and asking for an injury
claim form (Only if you were injured in the accident).

When and accident was to happen, and
someone get injured, anyone that is near should take quick actions to ensure
that the person who is hurt is as safe as possible without hurting themselves
as well. If the injury is minor, there should be a first aid kit which should
have the right equipment to help the injured person, and then they should then
be taken to a medic on the site to ensure that they injuries aren’t going to be
fatal. If the injuries are major, an ambulance should be called quickly and the
person should be taken to a hospital to be helped. After that, the part of the
workplace that the accident happened should be quarantined off so ensure that
no-one else will get hurt. The accident would then have to be reported in
either and accident book (which every company and workplace should have), and a
verbal report to a manager, employer or a health and safety officer as well if
needed. When the accident has been reported, the person or people can then ask
for an injury claim form to be able to get compensation for the injuries
acquired.

An incident it different than what to do
when an accident has happened. With an incident, there are no injuries that
require medical help, and therefore the person that was involved will not need
to go to the hospital. The incident will need to be reported or recorded in the
same ways as an accident in order to fix the problem and to stop the incident
from becoming an accident in the near future.

The accident book works by the employee
recording the accident or incident in detail, which would then be given to a
higher authority. The higher authority would then decide what to do to ensure
that what it causing the accident or incident it dealt with accordingly. The
verbal reports are similar, but instead there is not a written report to
support it. If the accident it something that is in the procedure to report to
the Health and Safety Executive, the paperwork that has been done by the higher
authorities in the workplace will be given to the HSE.

Paperwork that would be needed to be filled
out after an accident or incident- The paperwork that needs to be filled in
for the accident or incident follows an order in how to lay it out.  In the report, there should be accident
details, and injury details, if needed as an incident do not include injuries,
along with details about if there were any witnesses and information about
these people as well. It should also have evidence of what happened during the
accident or incident, as well as how it happened/ how it was caused. Finally,
the report should also have what was done to when dealing with the accident/
incident, and how the company will be dealing with it to ensure that it never
happens again.

Accident/ Incident and Injury Details- For this part of the report, it should
include where and when the accident or incident happened as this can show when
it happened to the higher authority in the company, and the health and safety
executive if the report is to be handed in to them. The injury details would
only needed to be in the report if what the report on was an accident because mainly
no injuries come from an incident, but if an injury came from the incident,
then it should be reported to prevent that from happening again.

Witness evidence and information about the
accident or incident- When an accident or incident happens, there are usually
witnesses in the workplace. What the witnesses saw is important and is needed
in the reported as it could show something that cameras in the place of the
accident/incident, which would help in the future when dealing with the
problems that caused the problem. In the report, there should also be
information of the witnesses as so then they can be contacted quickly to also
ask about what happened at that time.

How the accident or incident happened and
what caused it- This
part is very important for the report as it shows how the accident or incident
happened, which then results in the company knowing what caused it, and how to
fix the problem. This could also help as if there are similar cases where this
has happened before with the same cause, such as a faulty machine, as it shows
that what they are doing to solve the problem is not working and something else
should be done to find out how to fix it.

What was done during the accident or
incident and what was done to make sure that it never happens again-  The final part of the report is the most
important to do as it shows that the company have thought about how to make the
workplace safer, and also shows that they are determined to so that. This part
should include what was done when and after the accident or incident happened,
for example, calling a first aider to the scene to help the person that is
injured.

 

 In RIDDOR, it shows why these are needed when
reporting and are shown in the second part of schedule one in the regulations.
Regulation 6 from schedule one, is says that ‘in
respect of an accident injuring a person at work, that person’s; full name,
occupation and injuries’ must be recorded. This shows that the part about
recording important details of the injured person is vital in the report, as it
shows that it is that person who it injured, and not someone else. If no name
or details are put into the report, it could have been anyone in the workplace,
and therefore the higher-ups in the company will not know who to give the
compensation to, and also they will not know who will have to take a paid
leave. (Legislation.gov.uk)

Another regulation from schedule one, is regulation
9, which states that ‘a brief description of the circumstances in which the
accident or dangerous occurrence happened’ should also be recorded. This is
because in order to ensure that the danger has been dealt with, and also so
then the workplace where the incident or accident is checked to make sure it is
safe. If this is not on the report, it would be difficult to find out where the
problem is as the workplace may cover a lot of area, and therefore would take
longer to overlook the whole workplace rather than just the place where the
problem occurred. This could also lead to someone else being injured due to the
problem not being fixed fast enough. (Legislation.gov.uk)

 

 

Determine the
cost of an accident in the workplace (D2)

 

For
this part of the report, I will be writing about the costs of everything that
will be involved with while the accident happens and the aftermath of the
accident. This will also include direct and indirect costs that are involved
with the accident. The costs in this part are an estimate from the worked
example of accident costs from the BTEC Level 3 National Engineering Student Book.

Compensations
for the injuries- For the costs of the compensation
because of the amputation of the tip of the middle finger, half of his index
finger, and his thumb being removed, the estimates that I have come up with, I
have had help from a website which has estimates of the cost depending on how
bad the injuries were.

Middle
finger cost = ‘£11,875’ approximately

Index
finger cost = ‘£14,250’ approximately

Amputated
thumb cost = ‘£27,000’ approximately

Total
Costs of all the compensation = ‘£53,125’

This cost
does not involve the cost for psychological damage as the person who is injured
would have to be tested first, but if they would have needed it, the overall
cost for just this would be between around ‘£54,295 to £141,125’ depending on
how severe the damage psychologically, but for these types of injuries, I think
that the amount of money would be around £57,575. (www.legalexpert.co.uk)

Cost
of paying the injured person while on a leave- The
average amount of money that an apprentice at the age of seventeen is about
£3.30 an hour while in work and an apprentice can work between 30 to 40 hours a
week. That would be in-between £99 to £132 per week. These numbers are
multiplied by the amount the amount of weeks the apprentice is off, which is 11
weeks in total minimum. This would then take the amount of money the company
would have to give the apprentice for the sick pay around £1,265 approximately.

Fines
and Legal fees- For this part, the company were
fined for failing to provide proper training and supervision for the apprentice,
as well as failing to provide adequate risks assessments on dangerous
machinery. The company was also fined for failing to put sufficient controls in
place on a dangerous machine. From the worked example from the BTEC book, it
states that the ‘fines and costs due to criminal proceedings’ is about £15,000,
and the ‘Solicitor’s fees and legal costs’ are £5,000.  This comes to a cost of £20,000 in total.

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